How people express themselves during war and peace is very
different. The simplest gestures, keep a persons moral up in times of war and
peace? The holidays they celebrate are not the same throughout Africa. Throughout the history of Africa
it has seen many wars, what is written and what artifacts remain, may help
prevent war from coming again. The artistic expression and documentation that
comes out of war, is then priceless, since war takes many nation national
treasures, in amounts no math major could really calculate.
The Boers were Dutch farmers; they populated the Orange Free State and the Transvaal.
The Boers traveled from Hinderland which was the south part of Africa. This journey is known as the “Great Trek”. The
Boers spoke an Afrikaans language with a mixture of "kraal”. The Boers had
a liberalism philosophy, but had firm Calvinism beliefs. The Boers compound
Afrikaans languages were unique to their native village and cattle compound.
The Uitlander where people who worked in gold mines and engineers and also
entrepreneurs. They lived near the Witwatersrand in 1886, near the Transvaal, South Africa.
Uitlander controlled Johannesburg and parts Transvaal, South
Africa, mainly the mines. Cape Colony was
started by the Dutch East India Company in 1652.The Cape Colony was important
because it was the import and export area for trade in Southern Africa it was
strategic in nature as it was along the water route ,if it was taken by anyone
supplies would be cut off.3
During the Second Boer War, in the start of the 20th
century, the Queen of England was Queen Victoria.
She prepared gifts for the British Armed Forces for Christmas. The gift was a
chocolate tin, filled with CadBury Chocolates. The tins were made in a big size
and a little size. The tins had a golden colored rim and were red and blue. The
lid had on it Queen Victoria’s
head and her insignia and a message that said “I wish you a Happy New Year”.
The tin was signed Victoria.
The tin was later used to carry personnel artifacts which were personnel to the
British troops. Some tins were so special that some chocolates were uneaten.
The makers of the chocolate were “Barclay and Fry” and also Barringer, Wallis
and Manners and Rowntree and Hudson Scott. The Queen spent 3587.50 in British
pounds this is 6,500 in American money. The time and money was well spent since
the British won the war.
The British had taken prisoners during the Boer War. These
prisoners were not all Dutch settlers fighting in Africa.
The 20,000 prisoner were dependent on the leaders of the camp to supply food
and water and hygiene needs, while the prisoners stayed at the camp. Although
the amount of prisoners kept growing some prisoners were captured in the battle
of Elandslaagte and Paardeberg.
The locations of these camps were in Bermuda and India and also Ceylon
and St. Helena .The prisoner used art as a way
to express themselves during their stay at these camps. The artistic items were
used has a type of money system within the camps.2Some items were sold in local
shops in Bermuda; the proceeds were given back
to the prisoners of war
The soldier made boxes and picture frames out of unused
stuff they found on their walk and around camps. The prisoners made toys for
their children also. Item with a snake on it was thought to mean the artist was
a guerilla soldier. This type of folk art was made to express the sorrow of not
being home with their families. The prison camp went on a year after the war.
Although prisoner is never truly happy by any means art may have relived the
blues. The families of the prisoners were saddened also. Many of the surviving
artwork has survived to the present day and is housed and cataloged in the
of Military History in Johannesburg.
A song known as The De La Rey Song was a beloved ballad
and was anthem for parts of Africa, enjoyed by
the Dutch of Africa. The song was originally written by a half- Irish and half
- Afrikanns was simple picked General Koos de la rey because the name rhymed
with Sean Else lyrics of the song. General Koos de la rey did not want to
fight, but he later became part of the “NeverEnders”, He later died in a police
shot out; the police thought he was a mob member. During his time as a military
leader he released British soldier, because he felt they would get better
Canada sent 7,000 troops to fight in
The make-up of the troops where group of English Protestants and Catholics.
These soldiers turned out to be poets who had the desire to publish there
poetry in denominational publications. The poetry reflected their religious and
political views of war. The publications such as the English Protestant press,
published war time poetry that could of reached the religious faithful in
numbers reaching 40,000.The mainstream papers known as the Toronto Globe had
readers reaching the numbers of 43,000.The Evening Telegram had readers about
25,000. It is estimated that 300 poems were printed in Denominational
periodicals and were reprinted in different literature. Although there were
many famous poets who were famous where intensified because of the war such as
Rudyard Kipling. Many poets were clergymen to a citizen female supporting the
war effort. The poetry subject was often the Boer leadership, such as Paul
Kruger. Queen Victoria
was the muse of many of the Canadian soldier’s pens also. The Battle of
Paaredeberg was a subject of many poems also. Poetry was a quick means that
made the writer soldier happy during the surreal horrible experience of war.
The primary difference between the Boer and the British
leadership was a standing military. The British had an army that was groomed
over time, while the Boar formed their army out necessity. The British were a
group trying to maintain their world superpower dominance, while the Dutch were
just trying to earn a living. The NewRepublic was not the king
or queen check and balance parliament, like the British had. The DutchRepublic
would closely resemble the early American colonies. Many thinkers consider the United States of America
a type of republic rather then democracy. The leaders of Dutch were diverse
people who come from farming and mining background. The British invaders were
not from space, but from Britain.
The plains of Africa have never seen so much red, and not just the coats, since
the British landed on Africa.
The Commando System was used in Dutch Africa since the
18th Century; this system defrayed the cost of having a daily standing army.
The leaders in the Commando System were elected; the district had to muster
3,000 men to fight. A soldier in the boars army was from the age of 16 to
60.The Tranvaal and the Free State were different, but both parties fought for
what was right for the Dutch Colonists of Africa.
General Louis Botha was a Boers leader in eighteen sixty
two until ,
he later became a statesman and rose Prime Minster of Africa. He was not a
military leader who was classically trained, he got his experience on the field
and earned the respect of his soldiers, this allowed him to win victories for
the Afrikaners. His notable triumphs were defeating the British at Ladysmith
and Colenso. General Louis Botha was part of the “NeverEnders”, and was a
successful leader during the guerilla
The battles the followed well until the dawn of twentieth
century, the final soldiering act of General Louis Botha was the taking down of
the Germans in .
The wars between the British and Dutch were costly. The
Dutch stopped fighting the British. The cost of war, has far as hatred was
short lived, because shortly after the
Boer War, a larger war was started which was world wide, this war The Great War
which united Africa.
BBC.QUEEN Victoria’s Chocolate Gifts for her Men at War
Don Taylor, Robert Hale. The British in Africa,
Great Britian.Willmer Brothers and Harham LTD,Birkenhead.1962(Pg 39- 82-87).
Gordon L. Heath.Passion for Empire: War Poetry Published
in the Canadian English Protestant P...
Literature & Theology; Jun 2002; 16, 2; ProQuest
Digger History. Boer War; Dutch farmers fighting Aussie
Digger History . Boer Leaders in the 2nd Boer War.
Huxtins/London .Queen Victoria's Boer War Christmas gift tins
complete set c1900.http://www.huxtins.com/TINS/h2303_tin.shtml2008 .2008.
Fransjohan Pretorius. Boer Prisoner of War Art
History Today; Mar 2006; 56, 3; Research Library, pg 31.